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We create iconic brand experiences that build brand recognition through strategic design. At first, services were held in various locations in Olde Philadelphia. In , the congregation built its first sanctuary. Frank Furness , considered the most talented and exciting Philadelphia architect of his time, designed a Moorish-style synagogue on Broad and Mt.

The congregation soon outgrew its building and replaced it with the current structure, completed in Inspired by the great synagogue of Florence, Italy, Rodeph Shalom is one of the few synagogues in this country that retains the Byzantine-Moorish style. The majestic bronze-and-enamel doors of the Torah ark grace the bimah.

Obermayer Collection of Jewish ritual art. More than objects of Jewish ceremonial art from around the world dating back to the 18th century are on display. The Philadelphia Jewish Museum gallery, dedicated to Jacob Gutman, sponsors three to four exhibits of contemporary Jewish art each year, and is open for public viewing. Gotthelf, who held services in a hall at No.

Naumberg, Solomon Deutsch, and David Einhorn —66 furthered its progress in this congregation. The first marked change in the character of the liturgy took place in Samuel Hirsch succeeded to the rabbinate in ; he introduced many changes in the service.

In Joseph Krauskopf was elected rabbi; and contributed much to the success and standing of this congregation. It had about members in Its synagogue was situated on Broad Street, above Columbia Avenue from to In Joseph Leonard Levy was elected associate rabbi, but he resigned in to take up a rabbinical position in Pittsburg. Korn, Simeon Maslin and Lance J. Philadelphia Jews built two of the very small number of synagogues ever constructed in the Egyptian Revival style, the Cherry Street synagogue, for Congregation Mikveh Israel , and the Crown Street synagogue, for Congregation Beth Israel.

Drawings of the buildings survive, although the buildings themselves no longer do. In , the Non-Importation Resolutions were drawn up.

By these resolutions, adopted October 25, , the merchants and other citizens of Philadelphia agreed "not to have any goods shipped from Great Britain until after the repeal of the Stamp Act.

The last two were brothers who had left Upper Silesia in Germany about and settled in Philadelphia. In , just after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War , the following Jews agreed to accept the colonial paper money sanctioned by the king in lieu of gold and silver: The Jews in Philadelphia took a prominent part in the War of Independence.

The majority of the Jews of the city, however, supported the American cause. Haym Solomon made loans to individuals in Congress, which were never repaid; his services as a financial agent during the war were invaluable. Another creditor of the Continental Congress was Aaron Levy, and his loans, like nearly all the others, were never fully repaid.

At the close of the war the Jewish population of Philadelphia amounted to almost Although the majority of the early Jewish residents were of Portuguese or Spanish descent, some among them had emigrated from Germany and Poland.

The society was reorganized and chartered in In Jacob Frankel —87 was elected Chazzan , and about this time the congregation grew in numbers and importance. Frankel acted as chaplain of hospitals during the Civil war. On September 8, , when Naphtali Kahn was Chazzan , the congregation removed to its new building in Julianna street, where it remained until September 9, , when in , the structure at Broad and Mt. Vernon streets was dedicated. Marcus Jastrow , elected in , served the congregation as rabbi until , when he was elected rabbi emeritus died ; during his ministry Rodef Shalom became one of the leading congregations in the United States.

In Henry Berkowitz was elected rabbi. Data relating to the earlier Jewish charitable organizations are very meager. In , there was a society for the relief of destitute strangers, but the records of this organization have disappeared.

It existed for over fifty years. In , several ladies organized the still-existing Female Hebrew Benevolent Society , the first Jewish charitable organization in Philadelphia and the first one in the United States controlled exclusively by women. In , it elected its first board of officers, consisting of Mrs. Phillips first directress , Mrs.

Belle Cohen second directress , Mrs. Bravo treasurer , Miss Rebecca Gratz secretary. Wolf has acted as its president starting in the early s.

In , the United Hebrew Benevolent Society was organized. The oldest Hebrew Sunday-school in America was formed in Philadelphia.

These facts attest the early activity of the women of Philadelphia in the cause of religion and education. Rebecca Gratz — was, perhaps, the best-known American Jewish woman of her day. Not only was she one of the organizers of the Hebrew Sunday-School Society, but she was identified with nearly all the charitable organizations in the city.

Another woman prominent in the life of the city at this time was Louisa B. Hart, who was untiring in her devotion to the religious education of the young.

The attendance at the various schools of the society, of which Mrs. Ephraim Lederer was president, numbered over 3, in The most virile force in the community when these organizations were founded was Isaac Leeser.

He was essentially an organizer, and his name is connected with the inception of nearly every charitable and educational institution of his time. In , he issued " The Occident and American Jewish Advocate ," which he edited for twenty-five years.

He provided text-books and catechisms for the use of the young; he made a masterly translation of the Bible; and he rendered into English the Hebrew prayers. In he was the moving spirit in the organization of the Hebrew Education Society of Philadelphia. The first suggestion toward the establishment of a school for the higher education of Jewish youth came from Mordecai M. Noah , the well-known journalist of New York. In , he advocated in the "Occident" the formation of such an institution, the plan receiving the warm support of Leeser.

In , a ball was given for the purpose of raising funds for the "establishment of a Hebrew school in this city. Davis being elected chairman, and on July 16, , the Hebrew Education Society was formally organized, with Solomon Solis as its first president.

On April 7, , the school was opened with twenty-two pupils, and since that time the attendance has steadily increased. On December 4, , a meeting was held which resulted in the establishment of the first Jewish theological seminary in America.

The need of such an institution was strongly felt, as there were numerous synagogues in the country, but few persons capable of filling the rabbinical office. The seminary was established under the joint auspices of the Hebrew Education Society and the Board of Delegates of American Israelites, and was named "Maimonides College"; it was opened October 28, , with Isaac Leeser as its provost.

Williams; and the provost comprised the faculty. At a later date Hyman Polano and George Jacobs were added to this number. Abraham Hart was president, and Mayer Sulzberger secretary, of the board of trustees. Dropsie and Isidore Binswanger acted successively as president of the college. After an activity extending through six years the work of Maimonides College was discontinued owing to lack of support Dec.

The work of the Hebrew Education Society had met with great success during the s and s. Louis Gerstley acted as its president for many years, and David Sulzberger had been its secretary since The first Jewish hospital in Philadelphia originated in a suggestion of Abraham Sulzberger, who insisted in that a hospital was an urgent necessity in the community and that steps should be taken at once to secure the funds necessary to establish one.

The first officers were Alfred T. The association was incorporated September 23, The first site of the hospital was at Fifty-sixth street and Haverford road. Within a decade the needs of the first hospital had outgrown its accommodations, and in , during the presidency of Abraham S.

Wolf, it removed to Old York road. Sarah Eisner has recently built a Home for Nurses. The Jewish Hospital is one of the best-equipped and best-managed institutions in the United States.

Hackenburg succeeded Abraham S. Wolf as president in , and has served in that capacity ever since. To them is due, in a great measure, the success of the hospital. The Jewish Maternity Association was founded November 3, In addition to the maternity hospital there is a training-school for nurses, of which Mrs.

Belle Cohn is president. In West Jersey, because of its high proportion of Quakers, slaveholding was less significant 4. In Delaware, while Quaker influence helped to diminish slaveholding, slave owners prevailed politically, preventing adoption of a gradual abolition law similar to acts passed by Pennsylvania in and New Jersey in Economic downturns increased unemployment and misery among working families, leading to popular discontent.

In the early eighteenth century, the West New Jersey Council of Proprietors and their counterparts in London, the West Jersey Society, purchased large tracts on the east bank of the Delaware north of the Falls, opening this territory to settlers. Europeans also filtered into the remaining unpurchased area on the western side of the river in Bucks County. The shaded area indicates the area claimed through the Walking Purchase. Logan had already made an illegal individual purchase in to build the Durham iron furnace.

To facilitate what became known as the Walking Purchase , he located an unsigned draft deed dated —not a signed document—that he claimed as proof that the Lenapes had sold all territory that could be walked in a day and a half north from the previous boundary at Wrightstown.

On September 19, , three young settlers ran, rather than walked, a route cleared in advance, covering much more territory than Lenape leaders expected. On the second day just one of the settlers finished the run, completing sixty-four miles in eighteen hours.

The fraudulent Walking Purchase forced many Lenapes west to the Susquehanna and Ohio valleys in the s and s as the proprietors sold lands in northern Bucks County and the Lehigh Valley to speculators and immigrants. In the Ohio country, Delawares allied with Shawnees and Senecas. Though some Lenapes joined Moravian missions in eastern Pennsylvania in the s, they too eventually relocated to the Ohio Valley with rising tensions and war between natives and European settlers.

In the mids, in response to incursions from Virginia, Pennsylvania, and the British government, many natives of the Susquehanna and Ohio valleys allied with French troops and colonists who claimed the region from Canada through the Ohio and Mississippi valleys to Louisiana. The outbreak of war provoked a political crisis for pacifist Quaker legislators who had dominated the Pennsylvania assembly yet successfully avoided military actions that jeopardized their beliefs.

The Pennsylvania government funded the war and unleashed violence against natives by offering scalp bounties. New Jersey required Lenapes to wear a red ribbon and carry identification. The New Jersey government also appointed five commissioners who instructed the natives to bring in a list of lands they claimed as unsold.

When the Lenapes submitted their list in , the commissioners noted that colonists had settled on much of the territory. The sachems accepted a three-thousand-acre reservation called Brotherton in southern Burlington County in return for all but a few parcels of land.

The Easton Treaty of brought short-lived peace to the region when the Delaware sachem Teedyuscung ? Teedyuscung and the Quakers made it clear that the Walking Purchase had motivated Delawares to go to war.

Peace proved illusory despite the Proclamation Line of , by which the British government sought to create a boundary along the crest of the Appalachian Mountains between the colonies and Indian country. The largely Scots-Irish vigilante Paxton Boys of Lancaster County then killed neighboring Conestogas, allies of the Pennsylvania government since , and marched to murder refugee Moravian Delawares in Philadelphia, but turned back after negotiating with Benjamin Franklin.

Hatred exacerbated by more than a decade of war heightened boundaries between natives and colonists. Still, in New Jersey, Delaware, and parts of eastern Pennsylvania, Lenape and Nanticoke families continued to live in their homeland, often in the Pine Barrens and other marginal areas.

By , the improved portion of Philadelphia extended as far west as Sixth Street. The port connected the city to the world, and ferries from the opposite side of the Delaware River carried travelers and trade from rural New Jersey. By , the Delaware Valley was no longer Lenape country, a land without rigid boundaries and fences, but it remained a region integrated economically, socially, and culturally.

The site of Philadelphia at the confluence of the Schuylkill and Delaware Rivers provided an important nucleus of trade for southeastern Pennsylvania, West Jersey, and Delaware just as it had served the Lenapes and Dutch, Swedish, Finnish, and English settlers more than a century earlier. The English had drawn boundaries between the three colonies and then divided the provinces into counties and local governments.

Legally and culturally many colonists created racial lines between whites, who could not be enslaved, and Africans and Indians who could be denied freedom and land. Beginning with the Lenapes, the region developed a culture that placed greater emphasis on peaceful resolution of conflict, religious freedom, and personal liberty than other North American colonies, even as economic development encouraged the growth of slavery and expropriation of native lands, leading to war.

Soderlund is Professor of History emeritus at Lehigh University. She is the author of articles and books on the history of the early Delaware Valley, including Quakers and Slavery: A Divided Spirit and Lenape Country: Few regions in the United States can claim an abolitionist heritage as rich as Philadelphia. People of African descent have migrated to Philadelphia since the seventeenth century.

First arriving in bondage, either directly from Africa or by way of the Caribbean, they soon developed a small but robust community that grew throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

From the late seventeenth century to the early twentieth century, almshouses offered food, shelter, clothing, and medical care to the poorest and most vulnerable, often in exchange for hard labor and forfeiture of freedom. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, dissection and study of human corpses became the primary method for medical students to gain intimate visual and tactile knowledge of the body and prepare to perform surgery on the living.

Starting almost exclusively within a tight-knit community of Quaker botanists with a reverence for nature, early Philadelphia arboretums left a legacy of emphasis on native plants.

Philadelphians embraced the study of celestial phenomena and bodies, such as stars, planets, and comets, from an early date. Written in simple, often humorous language, The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin offered readers in the new United States an accessible, exemplary narrative of American upward mobility.

As such, the profession has been dominated by marginalized groups. In the Philadelphia region, African Americans owned and operated the majority of barber shops during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

Between and , Philadelphia became the center for book printing and publishing in the United States, surpassing New York and Boston. Although Philadelphia lost that primacy in the nineteenth century, firms specializing in medical and religious publishing continued to do well. Bookstores have long been an important part of the economic and cultural fabric of Philadelphia.

As early as the eighteenth century, booksellers set up shop in the city, eager to serve a highly-educated population hungry for information. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the number of bookstores continued to rise. The city of Philadelphia was built with bricks, giving it an appearance many neighborhoods retained into the twenty-first century. An abundance of local clay allowed brickmaking to flourish and bricks to become the one of the most important building materials in the region.

Bridgeton, the governmental seat of Cumberland County, originated in the late seventeenth century as a fording place at the upper tidal reach of the Cohansey River, a tributary of the Delaware Bay.

Bucks County, one of three counties established in by William Penn , originally stretched northward along the Delaware River all the way to the Delaware Water Gap and westward past Allentown. American cartooning began in Philadelphia. Benjamin Franklin —90 , who introduced cartoons to North America, used images to galvanize viewers to action on the issues of their day. As the political, economic, and cultural capital of the early United States, Philadelphia became a center for producing political cartoons and humorous caricatures.

Cemeteries have been integral features of the Philadelphia-area landscape since the earliest European settlements of the mids. Located 30 miles down the Delaware River from Philadelphia, the small but once industrially mighty city of Chester emerged in the latter part of the twentieth century as but a shadow of its former prominence in the county and the region.

Civil defense, generally defined as local voluntary programs designed to protect civilian life and property during times of conflict, has taken many forms: Clockmaking in colonial and early republican Philadelphia and its environs was considered an intellectual profession requiring great artisanal skill and scientific knowledge.

Among rural communities surrounding the city, the mathematical precision and mechanical intricacy of the profession put it at a superior rank to the crafts of blacksmithing and carpentry. Their purpose, however, changed in important ways as the eighteenth century progressed. Early coffeehouses primarily served the needs of traders and mariners, acting as crucial centers of commerce.

It looked forward to democratic politics and universal human rights, yet it also reflected local circumstances in Philadelphia. Social and economic elites dominated formal politics in Pennsylvania and New Jersey during the colonial and revolutionary eras, but ordinary people, often those who were ineligible to vote, helped shape the political culture.

Documentation of the lives of deaf individuals in the Philadelphia region, and elsewhere, is limited. Historic accounts depict desperate individuals roaming the streets or begging. Prior to the advent of public schools for the deaf, only elite deaf individuals received private tutoring.

Carved out of Chester County in with the remainder of that county lying to its southwest , Delaware County long served as a distinct but close neighbor to the City of Philadelphia.

As dentistry slowly emerged as a profession in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, innovative dentists in Philadelphia helped to shape dental care, procedures, and tools.

The cruel practice of dogfighting has thrived in the shadows of the Philadelphia region for more than years. Most commonly, young men have matched dogs against one another in remote locations and blighted neighborhoods for money and bragging rights. For as long as people have inhabited Philadelphia and the surrounding area, dogs probably have been present, too.

As the first domesticated animal, dogs possess a long, complicated past with humans, likely dating back between fifteen thousand and thirty thousand years.

Domesticated canids accompanied human migrants to the Americas around 10, to 12, BCE. Located a mile north of the Routes convergence, thirty-five miles north of Center City Philadelphia, Doylestown has served as the government center of Bucks County for over two centuries. From seventeenth-century Dutch settlements in the Delaware Valley to twenty-first century business connections, the greater Philadelphia area has had longstanding and meaningful ties with the Netherlands.

Not to be confused with the more numerous Pennsylvania Dutch—who are in fact German, or Deutsch, speakers—Nederlanders helped shape Philadelphia through migration and cultural, social, and economic exchange. Since the early nineteenth century, several reform efforts have aimed to improve Philadelphia-area public schools. While the historical context and the individual actors changed over time, a firm belief that basic education for all could foster social equality animated reform in every era.

Nestled between Second Street and the Delaware River, thirty-two Federal and Georgian residences stand as reminders of the early days of Philadelphia. Philadelphia and its nearby vicinities became important sites for entomological study by the nineteenth century due to the presence of the Academy of Natural Sciences established in and the American Entomological Society Entomological writing and illustration also flourished in this center for book production.

In the early nineteenth century, the city began to acquire properties along the Schuylkill, including these villa houses. Upon receiving his grant for Pennsylvania in March , William Penn immediately set about attracting investors and settlers. To pay expenses and realize a profit from his enterprise, Penn had to sell land. In the colonial era linen and flaxseed were fundamental to the mercantile life of Philadelphia and the Delaware Valley. At the time the first European colonists settled in the Delaware Valley, few places in the world were as well-suited to the cultivation of grains.

Constructed from the seventeenth through the mid-twentieth century, defensive fortifications along the lower Delaware River and bay guarded the region during times of international and sectional upheaval. As important structures with such long histories, forts help to explain the political, economic, and social history of the Greater Philadelphia region. Freemasonry, one of the oldest fraternal societies in the world, arrived in America with migrants from England to Philadelphia, Boston, and other places in the British colonies.

In the Philadelphia region, burial and funeral rituals have served to honor the dead and comfort the living. These practices have reflected shifting gender roles, new material and technological developments, and changing demographics.

Until the mid-nineteenth century, women were the primary caretakers of the dead prior to burial, while male sextons interred bodies.

From the founding of Philadelphia in until the late s, a vibrant community of cabinetmakers plied their skills alongside specialists in carving, chair making, and turning. Others who worked with wood included carpenters, coopers, shipwrights, and wheelwrights. The grand jury, enshrined in common law and inscribed in the Fifth Amendment of the U.

Constitution, has represented a force for citizen participation in the judicial process as well as for government power. The grand jury has the power to indict in felony cases and the broad right to investigate crimes. Over the course of three hundred years, urbanization and habitat loss in the Philadelphia region threatened amphibians and reptiles that once fostered rich scientific discussions. Nevertheless, pioneering herpetologists influenced medical, paleontological, and ecological studies of these creatures in North America.

Since its founding, Philadelphia has acted as a commercial hub for the surrounding region, its hinterlands. It is also one that offers provocative examples of how people consider the past. Hog Island, at the confluence of the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, exemplifies many broad trends in the environmental history of the region.

Once improved for agriculture, the natural landscape ultimately deteriorated through overexploitation, leading to its conversion for industrial, commercial, and other forms of development. What might you do if you found yourself with almost 50, square miles of seemingly virgin land in a place you have never seen, far from home? In , when William Penn — entrepreneur, scholar, religious mystic, Enlightenment intellectual — acquired Pennsylvania, he had a ready answer.

Although Philadelphia has been a premier city for medical innovation since the mid-eighteenth century, the diverse peoples of the region also have used home remedies to heal themselves. Home remedies preserve traditional domestic healthcare practices, and they have persisted into the twenty-first century as part of alternative medicine and mainstream scientific therapies.

European settlement of the region on both sides of the Delaware River dates to the early seventeenth century. Originally the Pennsylvania State House, this eighteenth-century landmark associated with the Declaration of Independence and the U. Constitution evolved from a workplace of government to a treasured shrine, tourist attraction, and World Heritage Site.

Long before western Pennsylvania dominated the American iron and steel industries, southeastern Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey became the epicenter of colonial iron production. Philadelphia was a center of patriotic fervor and activity during the American Revolution.

From its earliest days as an English colony, Pennsylvania needed lawyers to run the government, settle disputes, and keep the peace.

Over the centuries, strong ties of transport, investment, and culture grew between the Greater Philadelphia region and the Lehigh Valley. The valley was carved by retreating glaciers twenty thousand years ago and maintained by its namesake river running from the Pocono Mountains, through Blue Mountain, south and east into the Delaware River. Several million people each year make a pilgrimage to see it, many dabbing their eyes as they gaze at it intently.

Around the world it is regarded as a universal symbol of freedom. With a handful of like-minded associates, the twenty-one-year-old Benjamin Franklin —90 formed a self-improvement club in By reading, conversing, and improving their minds, members of the Junto believed they would also improve their circumstances, their social position, and their community.

As descendants succeeded the founding members, they prized the relationships and traditions handed down over generations, perhaps more than the original literary pretext of the organization. The Philadelphia region served as an important diffusion ground for log cabins in America as Swedes, Finns, and later Germans transposed their traditional building practices to the Delaware Valley, melding old-world models with the bounty of timber but adapting to the lack of tools and skilled craftsmen.

Lotteries have a long and controversial history in the Philadelphia region. Since the early eighteenth century, random drawings of numbers have funded charities and clubs, paid for roads and schools, settled estates, distributed land, and promoted various private and state-run initiatives. The colonies that became the state of Delaware lay in the middle of the North American Atlantic coast, extending about miles north from the Atlantic Ocean along the southwestern shore of the Delaware South Bay and River to within 10 miles of Philadelphia.

In the city and beyond, especially in Conshohocken, Pottstown, Phoenixville, Chester, and Camden, machining made the Delaware Valley a hub of foundries, craft shops, mills, workshops, and manufactories. Philadelphia-based writers and publishers produced literary magazines as early as the s, and, through the nineteenth century, the city was home to a succession of influential publications that supported many local authors and contributed to the establishment of a national literary culture.

Since the earliest European settlement in the seventeenth century, but especially from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries, large houses constructed by elites in the Philadelphia region provided agreeable places to live that demonstrated social status.

The Mason-Dixon Line, which settled a border dispute dating back to the founding of Philadelphia, is the southern boundary of Pennsylvania. The Philadelphia mayoralty, almost as old as the city itself, has changed markedly since its inception. When the post was created in the eighteenth century, citizens put up their own money in order to avoid having to serve.

By the early s, in contrast, candidates and supportive political action committees poured millions into mayoral elections. In colonial Philadelphia, physicians and other medical practitioners contended with a difficult disease environment. The best medical efforts of the day were often inadequate or even harmful in the face of chronic illness and epidemic disease.

The health of the colonial population varied by race and region. Philadelphia offered seventeenth-century Mennonite immigrants a gateway to the New World and their first permanent settlement in what would become the United States. Despite decades of migration to other parts of the country, Mennonites not only persisted in the city but also grew and diversified. Philadelphians have pursued significant scholarly and popular interests in meteorology, the scientific study of the atmosphere, since the eighteenth century.

Pioneering individuals, including Benjamin Franklin —90 and Reuben Haines — , tracked meteorological data, and scientific societies made the practice increasingly systematic by the late nineteenth century. As the social and political center of colonial Pennsylvania, Philadelphia and the surrounding region served as a microcosm for the complex and often convoluted history of the colonial and early national militia.

The role of Philadelphia militia also illustrates the nature of militia units during the American Revolutionary War. The early Europeans who settled in what would become Montgomery County in the eighteenth century tended prosperous farms, forges, and mills.

They depended on the Philadelphia market to sell their products and on its port to connect them to the wider colonial world. Mount Holly, New Jersey, established by Quakers in and known variously in its early history as Northampton and Bridgetown, became the county seat for Burlington County through an act of legislation in During the colonial period, the diversity of the region that became southeastern Pennsylvania, southern New Jersey, and northern Delaware made trade and diplomacy difficult.

The many cultural, especially linguistic, barriers between various Native American and European groups required go-betweens, or intermediaries. Native Americans lived in what became southeastern Pennsylvania, southern New Jersey, and northern Delaware for more than 10, years before the arrival of Europeans in the early seventeenth century. While Philadelphia has not been alone in experiencing sharp undercurrents of nativism, virulent rhetoric and periodic waves of violence aimed at the foreign-born have often wracked the city.

Founded in , the colony of New Sweden survived less than twenty years and at its peak numbered only about four hundred people, most of whom lived along the western bank of the Delaware River between what became Philadelphia and New Castle, Delaware. Founded in as the county seat of Montgomery County, Norristown sits on three hills that slope down to the Schuylkill River fifteen miles northwest of Center City Philadelphia.

Its riverfront location and abundant waterpower helped the town prosper throughout the nineteenth century and much of the twentieth. The history of nursing in the Philadelphia area is one of long and storied traditions. Men and women have often nursed their sick families and friends at home, which for millennia represented the best, safest, and most comforting site for treatment and care. Opera has played an important role in Philadelphia arts and entertainment since the mid-eighteenth century.

While Philadelphians maintained scientific interest in birds between the eighteenth and twenty-first centuries, the region became an important scholarly center for ornithology by the early nineteenth century. Primarily known for taxonomy the science of classifying organisms , ornithological study transformed in the s after the scientific community discovered a conclusive evolutionary link between birds and dinosaurs. Historians have often situated Philadelphia in three geographic contexts: Philadelphia has a long, distinguished history as a center of American painting.

From colonial times to the nationwide deindustrialization trend starting in the s, Philadelphia played a leading role in providing American and overseas markets with quality paints and varnishes.

The region lost its national preeminence in papermaking in the late nineteenth century, but it continued to host important makers of paper and paper products. Petty Island, part of Pennsauken, New Jersey, in the Delaware River opposite the Kensington section of Philadelphia, played a significant supporting role in the economic development of the region. The term Philadelphia lawyer originated in the eighteenth century as a description of members of the Philadelphia bar, then widely considered the best trained in the American colonies and exceptionally skilled in the law and rhetoric.

Philadelphia, like many cities throughout the Atlantic world, encountered a new threat in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries from pirates who raided the numerous merchant vessels in the region. Several historians have labeled this era as the golden age of piracy.

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